First, though, I have one note to add. Some people may read the following tips and think to themselves, "Boy, that's nice if you're a good public speaker. I already know I can't do it. My personality just isn't right." I would counter that by saying, yes, some people have a proclivity toward public speaking, and, yes, some personalities are better suited to this kind of thing. HOWEVER, even if you know (especially if you know) that you don't have the "right" personality to be an interesting public speaker, you can still do things to improve your audience's attention span (of course, I say that knowing that everything I'm about to tell you is not a foolproof way of keeping your audience's attention; these tips are designed to assist you in that venture, not be the magic cure-all).
Also, these tips are generalities. I understand that there are times when these things just aren't feasible in the given situation. I know people have to work with constraints such as microphones, limited areas to stand in, and operating a slideshow while they are speaking. In those cases, just try to apply these things as best you can. They do help, even when circumstances interfere.
Bearing in mind all that I just said, below are some tips to help you out in your endeavors:
- Speak up. Volume is one of the most important factors in keeping your audience's attention through thick and thin. If you mumble, no one will be able to understand you, and if no one can understand you, no one will pay attention to you. That said, however, don't shout at your audience either (unless it's appropriate for the situation or content, and let me tell you, it very rarely is). If you have a naturally quiet or small voice, practice speaking clearly and moderate your pace. Try to stand up straight when you speak and take deep breaths. This will help you to project your voice. On the flip side, though, if you have a tendency to yell at people (as I do sometimes), when you're in front of an audience, dial the volume down a little. Whatever you do, though, make sure you speak clearly, as that will also help audiences understand you.
- Use the stage. Good use of space is something that I still struggle with. Oftentimes what happens is I get so into what I'm saying that I either end up pacing (which is almost worse than not moving at all) or being stuck in one place throughout the speech. In a small group setting, moving around the stage area can be a wonderful way to engage the audience. Walking right up to somebody in the front row and saying something, then moving onto somebody else, and so on is a really good way to make sure people pay attention to you. But as I implied before, pacing is not the answer. Pacing (or any sort of non-purposeful movement) can give your audience the idea that you are disengaged from what's going on around you, and if you aren't engaged, why should they be? To combat the problem of pacing, be sure you are always conscious of how you move when you're speaking. If you tend to pace, practice standing in one place for a few seconds and then purposefully walking to another place to stay for a few seconds. I know this sounds like it might be awkward, and it is at first, but once you learn how to stop yourself from pacing, you'll be grateful you did.
- Eye contact. This is another thing I'll probably come back to and talk about more in detail at a later point, but for now, let's suffice it to say that eye contact is one of the biggest and most important things you can teach yourself, period. Knowing when to make eye contact and how can really help you out in life, but when it comes to public speaking, it's also a big deal. This works more for small group settings wherein you have a limited audience, but there are ways to utilize this in large crowds as well. For the former, while you're speaking find a few key people that you can come back to when you need to pause or take a breath. Do not, I repeat, DO NOT scan the room. I'm guilty of this as well. I'm still trying to break the scanning habit, but take it from me, scanning is not a good way to connect with your audience. It disengages them and doesn't give them a chance to feel like you're actually talking to them, not at them. Again, learning how to linger on one person for a few seconds before moving to the next can be very awkward and uncomfortable in the beginning, but trust me, once you get used to it, it's a very valuable tool that you will forever be grateful for.